Advantages of Dalian’s international trade development
In recent years, although the international development of Dalian has been reduced, but it is still the main force of Dalian’s economic advancement. According to Dalian Customs statistics, yielding a total value of foreign trade imports and exports of about $ 52.1 billion in 2010, an increase of 23.5% over 2009. Among them, exports of $27.39 billion, an increase of 23.6%; imports of $24.72 billion, an increase of 23.3%. During the same period, the total value of foreign trade import and export of Liaoning Province increased by 28.2%, exports increased by 29%, and imports increased by 27.2%. Combining the above data, it can be concluded that the import and export revenue from international trade has played a major role in the economic development of Dalian. 2014 Dalian’s total import and export of goods was 65,774.26 million U.S. dollars, and in 2015 the total import and export of goods was 56,034.16 million U.S. dollars, which is a decrease of 9,740.1 million U.S. dollars compared to last year. The data shows that the total value of import and export of foreign trade in Dalian has declined, but the level of development of foreign trade in Dalian has gradually tended to rise steadily in the past two years with the unique foreign trade advantages of the city.
1.Dalian’s superior geographical conditions
Dalian is one of the important cities in northeast China, located in the southernmost tip of Liaodong Peninsula, and the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, is the important gateway to the sea of the three eastern provinces, it is the superior geographical position of Dalian determines its international trade development advantages. Dalian port is surrounded by mountains on three sides, the port has small islands as a natural barrier, the port is wide and deep, due to the temperate monsoon climate in Dalian, warm in winter and cool in summer, coupled with the influence of warm currents, contributing to the seawater surface temperature remains above 0 °, making the port of Dalian a deep-water unfrozen port, which is the only unfrozen port in the Northeast and even the Bohai Sea region. Dalian is also very convenient for transportation, not only by Zhoushuizi International Airport and high-speed rail, but also by ocean transportation. In addition, Dalian is rich in natural resources, with a wide variety of seafood products and a large collection volume, which are not only famous nationwide but also can be exported overseas. Non-metallic mineral resources reserves are large and of high value, which adds momentum to the development of international trade in Dalian.
2. The longitudinal development of international trade transactions network
Due to the rise of cross-border e-commerce trade in recent years, it has inspired the confidence of many foreign trade enterprises around the world. Cross-border e-commerce is a way of trade that crosses national borders and customs borders to reach transactions on the network platform. Cross-border e-commerce lowers the consumption threshold of the global market, and overseas consumers can directly purchase foreign goods, reducing the operating costs of international trade between enterprises and accelerating the development of international trade. 2016, Dalian was officially established as the only city in Liaoning Province with a national cross-border e-commerce pilot zone, and the Dalian Municipal Party Committee and Municipal Government attach great importance to it, and government departments, including the Municipal Bureau of Industry and Commerce, the State Administration of Taxation and Customs, have introduced corresponding The government departments, including the Municipal Bureau of Industry and Commerce, the State Administration of Taxation and the Customs Department, have issued corresponding supporting policies to promote the development of the Dalian Comprehensive Pilot Zone for Cross-border E-Commerce. At the same time, the Dalian Municipal Government has formulated the Interim Provisions for the Management of Cross-border E-Commerce Support Funds in Dalian, which provides subsidies for a total of 22 items from eight aspects, with higher support than other cities in China, and uses financial support to support the development of cross-border e-commerce in Dalian and attract enterprises to Dalian, which has reached the point where the number of cross-border e-commerce enterprises has approximately quadrupled in less than a year. The development of enterprises competing with each other, continuous innovation and upgrading to promote the growth of foreign trade, accelerate the transformation of industrial structure, and gradually formed a unique “Dalian model” cross-border e-commerce model, the good development of international trade transactions network in Dalian is the result of joint efforts between various government departments and enterprises, Dalian cross-border e-commerce comprehensive The service level of the pilot zone will gradually show its relative advantages.
3. The official launch of “Single Window
On December 1, Liaoning Province International Trade “Single Window” was officially launched, and the “Single Window” was successfully connected to the customs supervision system, which is equivalent to an electronic approval hall, with the function of policy integration and comprehensive services in both directions, effectively integrating the information resources of the trade chain. Information resources, so that the port multi-departmental declaration mode upgraded to a one-time declaration, the declaration window from the original eight windows into a window now. The next step will also join hands with the Inspection Bureau, the General Administration of Customs, to speed up the “single window” construction, and improve the efficiency of the data connection and interchange between the various departments, to achieve mutual knowledge between the various departments can do supervision, mutual assistance in law enforcement, information sharing. Secondly, we should exchange and interoperate with various e-commerce parks and enterprises to provide them with a series of paperless one-stop services such as customs clearance, commodity inspection and taxation. The third to strengthen the function of upgrading, so that the “single window” can fully support the full mode of cross-border e-commerce operations, the country to promote the “single window” construction will largely play a positive impact on the development of international trade in Dalian.
The short board of international trade development in Dalian
In the past one or two years to see the development of international trade in Dalian, we can find that Dalian has encountered more serious problems, these problems have led to the slowdown of Dalian’s foreign trade development, we can only find the root of the problem in order to prescribe the right remedy.
1. The impact of Dalian’s demographic structure on the economy
Although the problem of population loss is not the main cause of economic decline, how to correctly handle the relationship between population and economic development, so that Dalian can only be better development, has been the current problem of Dalian can not escape. The disappearance of the demographic dividend will not be conducive to the revitalization of Dalian’s economy, however, there are two major aspects of population loss, one is the loss of young labor force, and the other is the serious aging of the population.
(1) The problem of youth labor force loss. At present, in Dalian and even in the three northeastern provinces, many students with high diploma and high education choose to work in the north, and it is difficult to retain students in the universities above the second level to work in Dalian. The rich and successful young people out of Dalian at the same time, but also caused the phenomenon of economic decline. Journalist Sun Xianchao has done such investigation, he interviewed a returnee biology doctor, asked why not consider staying in the northeast to develop, after all, parents are in the northeast. The biologist introduced that they definitely have to consider all aspects of their return to China, including salary and treatment, space for future career advancement and children’s education conditions, economy and living environment. On the whole, Shanghai becomes their best choice. Therefore, it is easy to see that when the talents leave, the scientific research results will naturally follow.
(2) The serious trend of aging population. At present, the aging population and labor force loss have become an important resistance to the economic development of Dalian, it is understood that the aging population of Liaoning Province ranks sixth in the country, and according to the survey, the level of urbanization in the northeast region is more prominent in the national urbanization level, resulting in a higher level of pension, so that the overall life expectancy of the population increases, the number of people in old age increases successively, and at the same time ” The combination of the above factors has increased the aging of the population in Dalian. The aging population in Dalian has shown the characteristics of “three fast and one high”, which means that the main young labor force has become less and less, and the old people are not only incapable of working, but also become a resistance to the development of the young labor force to a certain extent. The problem of aging population will also cause low fertility rate of local residents, and the problem of low fertility rate will become more and more serious in Northeast China due to the strict implementation of family planning policy, and such chain reaction will have a pressing effect on the economy of Dalian.
2，The structure of Dalian’s foreign trade is too sloppy
At present, Dalian’s international trade is still in a resource-consuming and labor-intensive trade structure. Although the scope of product structure is large and resource consumption is high, at the same time the natural environment has caused great harm and added more costs to improve the environment, so there is not much gain. Dalian city in the export of products because it can only export more low-end products and lead to a relatively low value of exports, so that the city’s dependence on the international market to strengthen, which will bring a threat to the economic interests of Dalian, so that the economic operation of Dalian can not be in the initiative position. In addition, according to the data of Dalian General Administration of Customs department, in 2010 Dalian foreign-invested enterprises imported 14.48 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 28%; exports 15.96 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 29%. The rapid development of foreign-invested enterprises has led to the lack of power to build independent brands in Dalian, making it less able to resist risks in the international market. Dalian’s simple expansion of production efforts cannot drive economic power, and stimulating trade development with a crude trade structure will only hinder Dalian’s overall economic development capacity.
3. Negative impact of China-Japan-Korea FTA on Dalian’s international trade
After the Second World War, the two countries have become more and more conscious of national sovereignty and territorial and territorial sea security, and the political and military confrontation has led to the tension in Sino-Japanese relations, so this will have a greater negative impact on the trade between the two countries. Now, the Chinese government and private organizations, as well as Japanese organizations and friends, are working to repair Sino-Japanese relations, but the Japanese government has been unable to face up to history, which makes it difficult to build trust in Sino-Japanese economic cooperation, and Sino-Japanese trade cannot yield maximum benefits. Japan and South Korea also have historical problems, and as long as the Japanese government faces up to history and strengthens economic cooperation and trust, the development of the China-Japan-ROK FTA can soar. After all, economic cooperation is a tool to knead between the political economy of the two countries, and it is the trust between the countries that is most important in the CJK FTA. China, as the first developing country, has a relatively large similarity in industrial trade structure with neighboring South Korea, and the South Korean government has a more obvious ability to protect its own enterprises. China has the advantage of low cost and cheap labor, which makes the Chinese market more competitive and raises the sense of urgency of Korean exporters.
Japan and Korea are both developed countries in Asia and show great similarity in trade structure, so trade cooperation between the two countries will definitely create obstacles. Since Dalian’s trade with Korea has been growing steadily, the economic trade with Japan is declining year by year. South Korea has an advantage over Japan in terms of tariff exemptions for China, so there is a “crowding-out effect” on Dalian’s trade with Japan. This “crowding out effect” inevitably leads to difficulties in the operation of Japanese enterprises and intensifies the rate of withdrawal of Japanese capital. At the same time, it is found that Dalian’s trade with South Korea is growing, and arbitrage activities are spawned.
Measures to promote the development of international trade in Dalian
1. Actively use the national reform policy
The improvement of government preferential policies. People are the most active factor in the productivity, and without the producers, the productivity will lose its connotation. The number of talents determines the size of the market, and also determines the speed of GDP growth. The phenomenon of “peacocks flying to the southeast”, where talents gather in economic development areas, has existed in Dalian for a long time, and the government needs to make great improvements in policies to retain talents. First of all, the government should pay more attention to good talents and improve the ability of social security services and public infrastructure construction in order to control the serious loss of human capital, for example, the government should pay higher attention to Dalian’s college graduates, give financial encouragement to the construction of key universities, and selectively reimburse tuition fees for poor college students; the government should not only subsidize college students’ business ventures in terms of capital expenditure, but also provide subsidies for college students’ business ventures. The government should not only subsidize college students’ entrepreneurship in terms of capital expenditure, but also strengthen the propaganda of innovation and entrepreneurship; the government should increase investment in education, improve the preferential treatment for teachers and intellectuals, and strive to improve the level of culture and education, so that the society can see the efforts made by Dalian government to retain talents. Secondly, enterprises should establish a sound scientific working mechanism to promote the work can be procedural, rules of contact and effective operation, while focusing on human capital investment strength and efficiency, reasonable optimization of human capital structure, guide its healthy and stable development, in the teaching and training of talents, management, life and other aspects to adhere to the people-oriented, service talent. Then again, it should formulate policies for the introduction of talents, improve the treatment and protection level, and enhance the motivation of talents’ work. Finally, the Dalian government should actively promote the development of tertiary industry, using the advantages of tertiary industry development to increase the employment capacity and attract talents, so as to improve the market economy system in Dalian.
2. Increase the capacity of independent innovation, increase the investment in science and technology, and optimize the trade structure
First, according to the direction of Dalian’s industrial structure adjustment, the government should increase scientific investment, strengthen technological innovation and cultivation of independent brands. Further improve the quality level and core competitiveness of foreign export products, promote the development of international service industry in Dalian, simplify the export process, reduce the cost of export time and optimize the international trade structure. Secondly, in order to accelerate the construction of Dalian international trade core function area, the government should play a leading role in finance, the introduction of encouraging policies to support the financial institutions to innovate and create financial tools to promote the construction of financial center to a new level, these support policies will largely improve the development of international trade in Dalian. Finally, under the 13th Five-Year Plan policy, the government strives to make Dalian Port “a multi-functional, all-round, modernized international port”, striving to make Dalian Port no longer a single port relying solely on loading and unloading operations, but to speed up the construction of an international, functional, industrial, happy and ecological port, becoming a The symbolic port enterprise group, to achieve the real sense of the new Dalian port.
3. Coordinate Dalian international trade relations and expand international trade cooperation
Countries in the world under the WTO system, the conflict between the interests of international trade in a variety of forms, so the WTO system policy coordination can rationalize the relationship between the interests of all parties, then Dalian in the development of international trade will also encounter many such problems. In the knowledge-based economy, enterprises will affect the cooperation between countries due to the risks caused by the technological world and innovation, and at the same time will strengthen the competitiveness of international trade, the main impact is to generate a lot of unnecessary foreign trade friction, so the city of Dalian in line with the development of foreign trade harmonious cooperation, but also should establish a good trade image, enterprises should strengthen the credibility, to actively participate in, and cooperate with international trade coordination.
As the port of Dalian export trade is mainly Japan and South Korea, then we give preferential policies to other countries in export trade policy, so that not only can promote trade cooperation between countries, but also improve the political relations between countries; of course, Dalian at the same time need to increase trade with developing countries. Due to the negative impact of the economic crisis on developed countries in 2008, Dalian’s economic cooperation with developed countries is gradually decreasing, and the economic trade volume between the two sides is declining significantly, which indicates that Dalian should increase the economic trade volume with developing countries to promote the comprehensive and mature development of Dalian’s foreign trade.
In conclusion, as the global market trade gradually becomes globalized and universalized, the close relationship of trade interaction between the world economies becomes inseparable. As the first port of import and export in China, the development of Dalian port will have an important impact on the Chinese economy. In order to ensure the steady rise of international trade in Dalian, the development of Dalian’s foreign trade should be analyzed in depth to find out the shortcomings and difficulties in the development of Dalian’s foreign trade and to create the right strategy for it. Only in this way can we help Dalian’s foreign trade continue to innovate and reform to ensure the good development of Dalian’s trade.